The concept of fault-lines as a way of determining the nature of diversity has been defined by Lau & Murnighan (1998). Fault-lines divide a group’s members into subgroups on the basis of one or more attributes. Gender is an example of a factor that divides a group into male and female subgroups. If particular members are separated from other members by more than one fault-line, the fault-line is claimed to be stronger. Lau and Murnighan argue that whereas diversity in general can add the benefits of increased creativity, strong fault-lines within a group will increase the level of subgroup conflict and lower performance.